Referring to Sparta as having a "wall of men, instead of bricks", he proposed to reform Spartan society to develop a military-focused lifestyle in accordance with "proper virtues" such as equality for the male citizens, austerity, strength, and fitness. This fact meant that, when the Peloponnesian War broke out, the Spartans were supreme on land, but the Athenians supreme at sea. The breaking point for me this time came when I reached chapter 2: Sparta In 500 BC, which starts on page 77, and I realized Cartledge doesn't actually start talking about Sparta in 500 BC until around halfway through page 80.
During the Peloponnesian War, engagements became more fluid, light troops became increasingly used and tactics evolved to meet them, but in direct confrontations between two opposing phalanxes, stamina and "pushing ability" were what counted. The demands of academic history, however, are not the same as those for a book produced for general consumption.  According to Xenophon, the basic Spartan unit remained the enōmotia, with 36 men in three files of twelve under an enōmotarches.
Don't assume that this work is any relative of Steven Pressfield's Gates of Fire. Samurai Jack If, as usually happened, the Spartans achieved victory on their side, they would then wheel left and roll up the enemy formation..
Military duty lasted until the 60th year, but there are recorded cases of older people participating in campaigns in times of crisis.
It would not be wholly inaccurate to describe his style as, on the one hand, too erudite to be considered truly popular, yet on the other hand, too informal to be truly academic. Unlike Eric who tries to pass off books on tape as books he has read, I will provide total transparency.
Yet, the chief executive power lay jointly between the kings and the 'Ephors' - five annually selected officials who ensured the former respected the laws. Initial Argive successes, such as the victory at the Battle of Hysiae in 669 BC, led to an uprising of the Messenians, which tied down the Spartan army for almost 20 years. The earliest form of social and military organization (during the 7th century BC) seems to have been the three tribes (phylai: the Pamphyloi, Hylleis and Dymanes), who appear in the Second Messenian War (685–668 BC). A further subdivision was the "fraternity" (phratra), of which 27, or nine per tribe, are recorded.
 Six morai composed the Spartan army on campaign, to which were added the Skiritai and the contingents of allied states. A history of the ancient Spartans, featuring historian Bettany Hughes as presenter and narrator. Information This book seemed, in other reviews to garner a good deal of harsh words for the simple reason that it wasn't what the readers expected it to be, or wanted out of it.
Directed by Jason Friedberg, Aaron Seltzer. After a period at the University of Warwick he moved in 10/79 to Cambridge University where he's a fellow of Clare College. Unfortunately Cartledge is only able to describe what Herodotus wrote about the Spartans. However, from the 6th century onwards, the military character of the state became more pronounced, and education was totally subordinated to the needs of the military.
Finally during 227 BC, Cleomenes' reforms introduced updated equipment to Sparta, including the Macedonian sarissa (pike). This book would have profited immensely from an uncompromising editor! Now, I have to admit the details of war, dates and names and battlefields and allies and enemies and political hoopla and the such not seem to sort of flow through me (especially dates).
 Over the course of the 6th century, Sparta secured her control of the Peloponnese peninsula: Arcadia was forced to recognize Spartan overlordship; Argos lost Cynuria (the SE coast of the Peloponnese) in about 546 and suffered a further crippling blow from Cleomenes I at the Battle of Sepeia in 494, while repeated expeditions against tyrannical regimes throughout Greece greatly raised their prestige. But I realize that you can't have one without the other for the historical facts of a time and a people are entirely driven by the ideological - or you could invert that relationship if you would like as well, very yin and yang the events and the beliefs.  According to Thucydides, the famous moment of Spartan surrender on the island of Sphacteria, off Pylos, in 425 BC, was highly unexpected. (2008). An OK read but for some reason didn't really grab hold of my interest. Except it turns out that the section on Lycurgus wasn't done, he just spent a couple of pages talking about something else without mentioning the actual subject of the section.
More than anything, the latter aided Sparta in funding the creation of a fleet to outmatch the hitherto invincible Athenian navy. Not recommended at all. The period covered by this work, 480BC to 360BC witnessed an intense rivalry with Athens, and the eventual fall of Sparta due to it overreaching itself after defeating its main rival for political hegemony on the Greek mainland.